Monitoring & Evaluating (M & E)

Training Diary
A training is an effective way of monitoring and evaluating an athlete’s progress. It can be used to reflect upon training sessions and how you felt it went but can also be used to reflect upon competitive performances. By keeping a training diary and reviewing it every week, it can be possible to build up an accurate picture of how an athlete may be developing. One issue with this may be that is a reflective piece, therefore an honest opinion of yourself is needed throughout to make records valid and reliable

Tactics

Coach Feedback

A teacher/coach would you give feedback during your performance or after. Telling you points to improve and points you have done well. An example of this would be, "My coach told me I had to straighten my legs during my cartwheel."

Points to consider when giving Coach Feedback:

Formation
What formation did the team play? Did they stick to it?
Roles / Responsibilities
Were there clear roles? Did players stick to these?
Principles of play?
Did the team play with WIDTH/DEPTH/MOBILITY/SUPPORT?
Individual strength and weaknesses?
What were the strength and weaknesses of individuals?
Team strength and weaknesses?
What were the Teams strength and weaknesses?


Knowledge of Results
This provides you information regarding your performance. Did you win or lose? Was it by a narrow or large margin?


Digital Analysis
Recording performance can allow close examination of the key points and the opportunity to gather detailed information on its key strength and weaknesses. For example, you could use video recording equipment, heart rate monitors and iPads to gather data on your performance


Skill

Scattergram

badminton.jpg



FITNESS
Standardised fitness tests:

Name: Progressive Shuttle Run Test.
Aspect: Cardio Respiratory Endurance.
Aim: To measure the aerobic capacity or cardio respiratory fitness of subjects during a maximal, indirect field test.
Equipment: Cones, tape measure and audio cues for the 20m shuttle run on CD.

Procedure:
Measure out and mark a 20m section on a flat surface with cones.
Begin playback of shuttle run audio.
Participants commences running between the sets of cones, turning when signalled by the beeps. This process continues as the beeps become closer together, ultimately increasing the speed of the runner.
If the line is reached before the beep sounds, the participant must wait until the beep.
The test is stopped if the participant fails to reach the line for two consecutive runs and their shuttle level is recorded.

Norms

Males

Age Very Poor Poor Fair Average Good Very Good Excellent
12-13yrs <3.3 3.4 - 5.1 5.2 - 6.4 6.5 - 7.5 7.6 - 8.8 8.9 - 10.9 >10.9
14- 15 yrs <4.7 4.7 - 6.1 6.2 - 7.4 7.5 - 8.9 8.10 - 9.8 9.9 - 12.2 >12.2
16 - 17 yrs <5.1 5.1 - 6.8 6.9 - 8.2 8.3 - 9.9 9.10 - 11.3 11.4 - 13.7 >13.7
18 - 25 yrs <5.2 5.2 - 7.1 7.2 - 8.5 8.6 - 10.1 10.2 - 11.5 11.6 - 13.10 >13.10

Females

Age Very Poor Poor Fair Average Good Very Good Excellent
12 - 13 yrs <2.6 2.6 - 3.5 3.6 - 5.1 5.2 - 6.1 6.2 - 7.4 7.5 - 9.3 > 9.3
14 - 15 yrs <3.3 3.4 - 5.2 5.3 - 6.4 6.5 - 7.5 7.6 - 8.7 8.8 - 10.7 >10.7
16 - 17 yrs <4.2 4.2 - 5.6 5.7 - 7.1 7.2 - 8.4 8.5 - 9.7 9.8 - 11.10 >11.11
18 - 25 yrs <4.5 4.5 - 5.7 5.8 - 7.2 7.3 - 8.6 8.7 - 10.1 10.2 - 12.7 >12.7


Name: 12 Minute Cooper Run
Aim: To measure aerobic capacity within a maximal indirect field test
Aspect: Cardio Respiratory Endurance.
Equipment: Athletics track or oval with a lap length of between 200 - 400 metres, enough marking cones to place one every 20m of the track, stopwatch

Procedure:

Complete a thorough warm-up and dynamic stretching
Place cones every 20m for easy calculation of distance covered
The participant aims to complete as many laps as possible within the 12 minute time limit whilst running
On the completion of 12 minutes the recorded counts up the completed laps and the number of completed metres on the final lap

Norms

Males
Poor Below Average Average Above Average Excellent
13-14 <2100 2100-2199 2200-2399 2400-2700 >2700
15-16 <2200 2200-2299 2300-2499 2500-2800 >2800
17-19 <2300 2300-2499 2500-2699 2700-3000 >3000

Females

Poor Below Average Average Above Average Excellent
13-14 <1500 1500-1599 1600-1899 1900-2000 >2000
15-16 <1600 1600-1699 1700-1999 2000-2100 >2100
17-19 <1700 1700-1799 1800-2099 2100-2300 >2300


Name: Harvard Step Test
Aim: To measure aerobic capacity within a simple step test procedure
Aspect: Cardio Respiratory Endurance.
Equipment: Metronome set at 120bpm, step or bench of 45cm high, stopwatch

Procedure

The athlete warms up for 10 minutes
The assistant gives the command "GO" and starts the stopwatch
The athlete steps up and down onto a standard gym bench once every two seconds for five minutes
The assistant stops the test after 5 minutes
The assistant measures the athlete's heart rate (bpm) one minute after finishing the test - Pulse1
The assistant measures the athlete's heart rate (bpm) two minutes after finishing the test - Pulse2
The assistant measures the athlete's heart rate (bpm) three minutes after finishing the test - Pulse3
You can then determine your norm by applying the formula below
Result = 30000 ÷ (pulse1 + pulse2 + pulse3)

Norms

Rating Males Females
Excellent >90 >86
Above Average 80 - 90 76 - 86
Average 65 - 79.9 61 - 75.9
Below Average 55 - 64.9 50 - 64.9
Poor <55 <50


Name: 60 Second Push Up Test
Aim: To measure the muscular endurance of the arms and shoulders and chest muscles
Aspect: Muscular Endurance
Equipment: A stopwatch

Procedure:

Participant assumes the push up position with feet together and arms approx shoulder width apart.
On signal the participant completes as many push-ups as possible in 60 seconds

Norms

Males
Rating 17-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-65
Excellent >56 >47 >41 >34 >31 >30
Good 47 - 56 39 - 47 34 - 41 28 - 34 25 - 31 24 - 30
Above Average 35 - 46 30 - 39 25 - 33 21 - 28 18 - 24 17 - 23
Average 19 - 34 17 - 29 13 - 24 11 - 20 9 - 17 6 - 16
Below Average 11 - 18 10 - 16 8 - 12 6 - 10 5 - 83 - 5
Poor 4 - 10 4 - 9 2 - 7 1 - 5 1- 4 1 - 2
Very Poor <4 <4 <2 0 0 0

Females
Rating 17-19 20 -29 30 -39 40 - 49 50 - 59 60 - 65
Excellent >35 >36 >37 >31 >25 >23
Good 27 - 35 30 - 36 30 - 37 25 - 31 21 - 35 19 - 23
Above Average 21 - 27 23 - 29 22 - 30 18 - 24 15 - 20 13 - 18
Average 11- 20 12 -22 10 - 21 8 - 17 7 -14 5 -12
Below Average 6 - 10 7 - 11 5 - 9 4 - 7 3 - 6 2 - 4
Poor 2 - 5 2 - 6 1 - 4 1 - 3 1 - 2 1
Very Poor 0 - 1 0 -1 0 0 0 0


Name: 60 Second Squat Test
Aim: To measure the muscular endurance of the leg muscles
Aspect: Muscular Endurance
Equipment: A chair (ensure that the participants knee's bend at right angles when they are
sitting in the chair)

Procedure:

Have the participant stand with feet shoulder width apart in front of the chair in a position ready to sit down
When ready the participant sits down until their backside just touches the chair, then they return to the standing position
The participant repeats this action as much as possible
Norms

Rating Males (18 - 25 years) Females (18 - 25 years)
Excellent > 49 > 43
Good 44 - 49 37 - 43
Above Average 39 - 43 33 - 36
Average 35 - 38 29 - 32
Below Average 31 - 34 25 - 28
Poor 25 - 30 18 - 24
Very Poor < 25 < 18


Name: Sit & Reach Test
Aim: To measure static flexibility of the hamstring muscles
Aspect:Flexibility
Equipment: A sit and reach box (preferred) or a box and ruler

Procedure:

The participant performs a thorough warm up and dynamic stretching
Have participants remove their shoes and sit on the floor with head back and hips at 90 degree angle from the hip joint
Have the participant extend one leg at a time while the sole of the other foot remains against the inside of the extended leg's knee
The participant places one hand on top of the other and reaches as far forward as possible along the measuring line.
Ensure that the hands remain at the same level, not one reaching further forward than the other.
After some practice reaches, the subject reaches out and holds that position for at least one-two seconds while the distance is recorded. A negative score is when the participant doesn't reach the box, a positive score is when they reach the box.

Norms

Rating Males Females
Super > +27cm > +30cm
Excellent +17 to +27cm +21 to +30cm
Good +6 to +16cm +11 to + 20cm
Average 0 to + 5cm + 1 to + 10cm
Fair -8 to - 1cm -7 to 0cm
Poor -20 to -9cm -15 to -8cm
Very Poor <-20cm <-15cm

Name: Shoulder Elevation Test
Aim: To measure static flexibility
Aspect: Flexibility
Equipment: Tape measure, 2 x metre rulers

Procedure:

Measure the length of the participants arm from their acromial process (edge of shoulder) to their fingertips. This is known as your arm length.

Have the participant lie on the floor with their arms fully extended overhead
Have them grasp one ruler with their hands shoulder width apart
The participant raises the ruler as high as possible while keeping their chin on the floor
The assistant reads the measurement off the second ruler which is held vertical. This is known as your measurement length

A norm can then be calculated by using the following formula: Arm length - Measurement length

Norms

Rating Males Females
Excellent 14 or less 13 or less
Good 15 - 19 14 - 19
Average 20 - 29 20 - 27
Fair 30 - 32 28 - 30
Poor 33 or more 31 or more

Name: Trunk Rotation Test
Aim: The trunk rotation test is a measure of dynamic flexibility that measures range of
motion of the hips and shoulders
Aspect: Flexibility
Equipment: Chalk and a solid wall

Procedure

Mark a vertical line on the wall with chalk. Have the participant stand with their back to the wall directly in front of the line.
Have them stand about an arms length away from the wall with their feet shoulder width apart
Have them extend their arms out directly in front so they are parallel to the floor
They twist their trunk to the right and touch the wall behind them with their fingertips. Their arms should stay extended and parallel to the floor. They can turn their shoulders, hips knees as long as their feet don't move
Mark the position where the fingertips touched the wall. Measure the distance between the vertical line and the where the fingertips reached. A point before the line gives a negative score and a point after the line gives a positive score
Repeat on opposite side of the body

Norms

Poor 0 cm
Fair 5 cm
Good 10 cm
Very Good 15 cm
Excellent 20 cm


Name: 50m Timed Sprint
Aim: To determine running speed over 50m
Aspect: Speed
Equipment: Stopwatches, Cones, Measuring Tape

Procedure:

In pairs, one member acts as the timekeeper the other the participant.
The participant starts from a stationary position
On a signal the participant sprints as fast as possible to the end line
The timekeeper stops the stopwatch and shares the time.
Swap roles

Norms

Rating Male Female
Excellent < 7.1 seconds < 8.0 seconds
Good 7.1 -7.3 seconds 8.0 - 8.4 seconds
Average 7.4 -7.8 seconds 8.5 - 8.9 seconds
Fair 7.9 -8.2 seconds 9.0 - 9.3 seconds
Poor >8.3 seconds >9.4 seconds

Name: Standing Broad Jump
Aspect: Power
Aim: To measure the muscular power of the lower body
Equipment: Measuring tape to measure distance, non slip floor for take-off

Procedure:

The performer stands behind a line marked on the ground with feet slightly apart.
A two foot take-off and landing is used, with swinging of the arms and bending of the knees to provide forward drive allowed.
The performer attempts to jump as far as possible, landing on both feet without falling backwards.
Measurement is taken from the takeoff mark to the nearest point of contact in the landing which is usually the back of the heel.

Norms

Rating Males (cm) Females (cm)
Excellent >250 >200
Very Good 241 - 250 191 - 200
Above Average 231 - 240 181 - 190
Average 221 - 230 171 - 180
Below Average 211 - 220 161 - 170
Poor 191 - 210 141 -160
Very Poor <191 <141

Name: Standing Vertical Jump
Aspect: Power
Aim: To measure the muscular power of the lower body
Equipment: A ruler/measuring tape, chalk and a wall

Procedure:

The athlete stands side on to a wall and reaches up with the hand closest to the wall.
Keeping the feet flat on the ground, the point of the fingertips is marked or recorded using the chalk. This is known as the standing reach height.
The athlete then stands away from the wall, and leaps vertically as high as possible and attempts to touch/mark the wall at the highest point of the jump.
The difference in distance between the standing reach height and the jump height is the score. The best of three attempts is recorded.

Norms

Rating Males (cm) Females (cm)
Excellent >70 >60
Good 56-60 46-60
Average 41-55 31-45
Fair 31-40 21-30
Poor <30 <20


Name: 1RM
Aim: RM stands for repetition maximum, therefore 1RM means the maximum weight that
can be lifted only once. This test will measure the muscular strength of a particular
body part in one maximum effort.
Aspect: Strength
Equipment: Weights (fixed or free)

Procedure:

The participant completes a thorough warm-up. For example sets of 5 - 10 repetitions using a light weight.
The starting weight must be carefully chosen so that the maximal lift will occur within 5 attempts
The participant should rest for 2 to 4 minutes between lifts and the next weight should be increased by about 5 to 10 per cent
If the participant fails to perform a lift with the correct technique, they should rest then attempt a weight that is 2.5 to 5 per cent lighter.
The weight is increased and decreased until a 1RM lift is performed


Name: Hand Grip Dynamometer
Aim: To measure the muscular strength of the arms
Aspect: Strength
Equipment: A dynamometer

Procedure

The participant holds the dynamometer in the hand to be tested, with the arm at right angles and the elbow by the side of the body
When ready, the participant squeezes the dynamometer with maximum effort for about 5 seconds

Rating Males Males Females Females (non dominant hand) (dominant hand) (non dominant hand) (dominant hand)
Excellent >57 >61 >36 >40
Good 51 - 56 55 - 60 31 - 36 35 - 40
Average 45 - 50 49 - 54 25 - 30 29 - 34
Fair 39 - 44 43 - 47 19 - 24 23 - 27
Poor <39 <43 < 19 < 23

Name: Illinois Agility Test
Aim: To measure agility within a designated course
Aspect Agility
Equipment: Stopwatch, cones, non slip surface, tape measure

Procedure:

Set-up the course as per the diagram below (The length of the course is 10 metres and the width of the course is 5 metres. Four cones are also used to mark the start, the finish and the two turning points
Another 4 cones are placed down the centre an equal distance of 3.3 metres apart
Participants lie down at the start and put their hands to their sides
On a designated signal, the stopwatch is started and the participants run the course as fast as possible in the direction indicated on the diagram below
Diagram: http://www.topendsports.com/testing/images/illinois.gif

Norms

Rating Male Female
Excellent <15.1 seconds <17.1 seconds
Good 15.1 - 16.1 seconds 17.1 - 18.0 seconds
Average 16.2 - 18.1 seconds 18.1 - 21.8 seconds
Fair 18.2 - 18.3 seconds 21.9 - 23.1 seconds
Poor >18.4 seconds > 23.2 seconds


Name: T-Test
Aim: To measure agility within a pre determined course
Aspect: Agility
Equipment: Tape measure, marking cones, stopwatch

Procedure:

Setup the course up in a 'T' shape (as per the diagram below; 5 yards = 4.57m, 10 yards = 9.14m)
The subject starts at cone A. On the command of the timer, the subject sprints to cone B and touches the base of the cone with their right hand.
They then turn left and shuffle sideways to cone C, and also touches its base, this time with their left hand.
Then shuffling sideways to the right to cone D and touching the base with the right hand.
They then shuffle back to cone B touching with the left hand, and run backwards to cone A. The stopwatch is stopped as they pass cone A.

Diagram: http://www.topendsports.com/testing/images/t-test.gif
Norms
Males Females
Excellent < 9.5 < 10.5
Good 9.5 - 10.5 10.5 - 11.5
Average 10.5 - 11.5 11.5 - 12.5
Poor >11.5 >12.5

Name: Stork Balance Test
Aim: To assess the balance of an individual on one foot
Aspect: Balance
Equipment: Stopwatch

Procedure:

Remove shoes and stand on a flat surface with hands on hips
Stand on one foot and position the other foot against the inside knee of the supporting leg
On the starting signal, raise your heel and balance on the ball of your foot. Timing is commenced
The timekeeper stops recording when:
One of both hands come off your hips
Your supporting foot switches or moves in any direction
The heel of the supporting foot touches the floor
Your non-supporting foot loses contact with the knee

Norms

Poor <10 secs
Fair 10-24 secs
Average 25-39 secs
Good 40-50 secs
Excellent >50 secs

Name: Alternate Hand Wall Toss
Aim: To assess hand-eye coordination
Aspect: Coordination
Equipment: Tennis balls, measuring tape, cones and a stopwatch. You will also need a solid wall

Procedure:

A cone is placed 2m from a wall.
The participant stands behind the line, facing the wall.
The ball is thrown from one hand in an underarm action against the wall, and attempted to be caught with the opposite hand.
The ball is then thrown back against the wall and caught with the initial hand.
The action is repeated for a period of 30 seconds.

Norms

Poor < 15
Fair 15 - 19
Average 20 - 29
Good 30 - 35
Excellent > 35


Name: Ruler Drop Test
Aim: To assess the reaction time of participants
Aspect: Reaction Time
Equipment: A metre ruler and a chair

Procedure

The ruler is held by the assistant between the outstretched index finger and thumb of the athlete's dominant hand, so that the top of the athlete's thumb is level with the 10 centimetre line
The assistant instructs the athlete to catch the ruler as soon as possible after it has been released
The assistant releases the ruler and the athlete catches the ruler between their index finger and thumb as quick as possible
The assistant is to record distance between the 10cm mark and the top of the athlete's thumb where the ruler has been caught.
The test is repeated 2 more times and the average value used in the assessment

Norms

Excellent <7.5cm
Above Average 7.5-15.9cm
Average 15.9 - 20.4cm
Below Average 20.4 - 28cm
Poor > 28cm