Cooperating and Competition
Definition
Co-operating is where you work together with others to achieve a common goal.Competing is where you strive to win something by defeating others who are also trying to win.

Impact on Performance
Cooperating in volleyball by playing using three touches to set up a spike and win the point. Or passing and moving to get up the court and score a goal in handball. Cooperating can also be used to learn new skills. In table tennis my partner and I helped each other by feeding the ball so we could practice our shots. For example a “hand feed” or “dart feed” can be used when learning a back hand push shot. The main aim is to help make learning easier for a partner or team mate so they can practice the skill to a competent level without added pressure.Competing- playing a smash into the open area of a badminton court to win the point, or dipping as you cross the line in 100m to win in a photo finish.

Contributing to a Team/Group
Definition
In any activity, where you work with at least one other person, you will be a member of a group or team. Within the group or team you will have to give (contribute) something that helps the group or team. Each member of the team or group is expected to contribute and this contribution can determine whether a team/group is to be successful.

Impact on Performance
Positively contributing to your team will have a positive effect on their performance. For example a dancer may have an idea and suggest how the dance could be developed making the dance look better. In a team if your teammates see that you are fulfilling your role, marking an opposition player for example, then they will work hard to ensure they fulfil their roles. It is important to ensure each member of a team contributes for their overall success.A negative contribution to your team and not fulfilling your role can result in a poor performance from your team. Having a player perform poorly or become negative has impact on the game and your fellow players as they begin to lose faith in your performance

Working in Isolation
Definition
Practicing mental (for example through visualisation), emotional (for example through self talk) or physical skills or techniques on your own. Physical fitness can be improved working alone as can physical skills - feedback can be gained from knowledge of results or internally (kinaesthetically).
Relationships
Definition
Relationships is the way in which two or more people or groups regard and behave towards each other.

Impact on performance
Relationships are one of the most important factors that can impact on performance. It is the way in which people behave towards one another and can have a profound impact on the potential success of team performance. In football, you could have a group of exceptionally talented players that on paper should be successful, but if they have a poor relationship between them they will almost certainly produce a weaker performance compared to a team who can work together using the strengths of all its members. Another area where relationships have a major impact is between the coach and player. This can be especially important in a sport like tennis where the individual nature means you are spending a lot of one to one time with the coach. If you do not get along or have different philosophies it would become almost impossible to coexist effectively.In dance, there is a relationship between the performer and the music. The performer can use the tempo, rhythm and speed of the music as stimulus in their performance to increase the aesthetics of their dance.

Team Dynamics
Definition
The interaction of performers within a team or group. It is mainly to do with making the group or team more effective than the sum of its parts.

Impact on Performance
Team Dynamics is the effectiveness of the team and this can be highlighted in how they support each other, are they positive? Do team mates help keep the team morale high during a performance? Are individuals playing for each other?This cannot be improved as individuals but must be looked at as the interaction of the group. Ways of developing team/group dynamics can be linked to cooperative tasks/practices.In Basketball zone defence, as a team of 5 on the court cooperation is required to limit space for the opposition to get into the lane or close to the basket for an easy score. Lack of this cohesion will leave spaces to be exploited by the opposition and could lead to points being conceded. Individuals completing their own role and fulfilling their responsibilities successfully can contribute to the effectiveness of the team. In rugby, from set play do dummy runners play their role effectively to create the gaps for the ball carrier to break the defensive line?

Etiquette
Definition
This is how performers are meant to behave in an activity it covers fair play and sportsmanship. Put simply it’s a list of dos’ and don’ts in the activity. For example do shake hands at the end of the match, don’t argue with the referee’s decisions.

Impact on Performance
Etiquette is a code and set of expectations for the conduct of the performer and is based on following the written rules but also covers many unwritten rules and protocols that are expected within the particular activity. Etiquette tends to be based on traditions and social conventions within the activity. For example kicking the ball out of play in a football match to allow the game to stop for an injured player to get treatment or a badminton player acknowledging when they win a point with a lucky shot.

Respect for Self and Others
Definition
Self-respect is the ability to value the contribution you make to your own or teams performance and feel a sense of achievement from what is produced. This also applies to how you value the contribution of others within the team.

Impact on Performance
If you over or under value the way you feel this can have an effect on how you play. If you have a low level of self-respect you will feel you are unable to make a meaningful contribution to the team. You may not make yourself available for passes or involve yourself within the game. This will have an impact if you lack respect for others as you will not allow your team to play to their full potential. During or after a game in basketball, when a player knows they have performed well in both attack and defence they feel good. Identifying that your strong defence has helped prevent numerous baskets gives you confidence and shows that you understand your role in the game.If you do not feel valued as a player you will have a real lack of confidence and belief in your ability to contribute to the team and game. If this is how you feel during a game then you will not have the courage to play well. It will become a focus in your mind as you play the game and when you make mistakes it will impact on your negative feeling further.


Inclusion
Definition
Inclusion is the act of including someone or the state of being included. Individuals having different backgrounds like origin, age, race and ethnicity, religion, gender, and identity are accepted and welcomed and treated equally

Impact on Performance
If everyone in the team has a clear role and feels like a valued member this can lead to more cohesion while performing and increased motivation to do well. Inclusion can inspire players and teams to achieve great things. The Ryder Cup in 2012 was a prime example of all team members feeling included and producing one of the greatest comebacks in golf history.If all team members do not feel included or you do not include all players as part of your team this can lead to disharmony amongst players ultimately a drop in performance. Often, a non-inclusive environment is characterised by fractions within a team. Individuals will not have an equal value within the team and there will be no shared, common vision.

Ethics
Definition
Moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conducting of an activity.

Impact on Performance
A person’s ethics can have both a positive and negative impact on performance. Some people believe in the principle that winning is everything. If this is your belief then you may attempt to bend the rules wherever possible in order to gain a competitive advantage over an opponent, and to pay less attention to the safety and welfare of the competition. Examples of this may be:
  • Faking a foul or injury
  • Inflicting pain on an opponent with the intention of knocking him or her out of the game.
  • Taunting or intimidating an opponent
All of these examples place greater emphasis on the outcome of the game than on the manner in which it is played.A more positive ethical approach is to ensure you follow a sportsmanship model where healthy competition is seen as a means of improving overall enjoyment and character. It contributes to a community of respect and trust between competitors and in society. The goal in sportsmanship is not simply to win, but to pursue victory in the correct manner by giving the best effort you possibly can.

Fair Play (closely related to etiquette)
Definition
Fair play is when teams or players play according to the formal rules of the activity without anyone having an unfair advantage. Fair play includes playing to win but also accepting defeat properly and respecting everyone involved in the game including officials. Fair play also involves only using tactics that are in accord with the spirit of the game.

Impact on Performance
A team or player who does not abide by the rules of the game risks being disciplined by the referee/umpire. This could result in a player being sent off and your team having to play the remainder of the match at a numerical disadvantage. This can also lead to a suspension period and a poor reputation with referees and oppositions. Breaking a rule often leads to the referee awarding possession to the other team. This can put your team under pressure and can cause your team mates to become frustrated with your actions.

Codes of Conduct
Definition
A code of conduct for sports provides guidelines for ethical athletic activity and tries to promote fair play.In any sport there are a series of rules that must be followed, breaking these rules results in sanctions/penalties against the team or individuals. As well as these written rules there are unwritten rules or a ‘code of conduct’ which, while not the formal rules of the game, it is expected will be followed.

Impact on Performance
In a recent game of hockey one of the opposition players got injured in the middle of the pitch. As it was accidental the referee allowed play to continue. I realised that the player was badly hurt so put the ball out of play so she could receive treatment. I didn’t have to do this but it was the right thing to do in the circumstances.After the opposition had put the ball out to allow treatment for one of our players, their goal keeper expected us to play the ball back to him. Noticing he was off his line and that there was only 1 minute to go I took a shot and scored the winning goal. The other team were very angry and accused me of cheating however I had not broken and rules. What I done however was not very sportsmanlike and it fell outside the code of conduct.

Conduct of Self, Players, Crowd and Officials
Definition
Conduct of self, players, crowd and officials relates to the social interactions and behavioural patterns of the persons aforementioned, before, during and after a performance.

Impact on performance
The conduct and behaviours of all the people involved in a sporting performance can be very complex since it often affects others involved and the relationships between each other. For example a football player may feel intimidated or anxious by an aggressive crowd chanting for them to miss a penalty. A “weaker” referee may be more easily swayed to award free kicks or other decisions by the conduct of a home crowd throughout a match. There are written rules of conduct and codes of conduct for all parties to follow. Professionalism in sport has led to sportsmen/women and officials having to conduct themselves in a more “professional” manner. This can affect how they dress, how they train, how they behave throughout a performance, the things they may say and how they behave in post-performance interviews. Their overall conduct can be placed under a great deal of scrutiny by the general public as well as the media and since they often set an example to the younger generations there are a number of expectations on how they must conduct themselves at all times. Failure to conduct themselves correctly can lead to punishment through the rules of the activity, financial fines, suspensions, loss of jobs etc.In golf players will generally conduct themselves very well. Despite having a deep desire to win they will do all they can to behave in line with the rules and the codes of conduct. They may hope that their opponents don’t hole their putt to win, but they would never cheer, fist pump or laugh when an opponent misses. Win or lose they will generally conduct themselves in a manner showing respect to their opponents, the officials and the crowds watching.Liverpool striker Luis Suarez was banned for 10 matches following a charge of violent conduct where he bit Chelsea defender Branislav Ivanovic. He was also banned in the previous season for racially abusing Manchester UTD defender Patrice Evra. These are both examples of a player conducting himself in a negative way and he was punished as a result.
Social Responsibility
Definition
Social responsibility is the extent to which as an athlete your actions can impact on others and your conduct affects the dynamics of those around you.

Impact on Performance
As a performer or coach you should never lose your temper, throw things, scream at officials or exhibit uncontrolled anger at any time. You are responsible for your actions and you should always demonstrate good sportsmanship/conduct and to be a role model for others. It is your responsibility to win or lose with dignity as your actions can and will influence others.When Phil O’Donnell collapsed on the pitch the players around him, from both teams, forgot they were in a game of football and done all they could to help him. To the watching crowd/TV audience this showed that in the grand scheme of things football was not that important and all rivalries are put aside to try and help someone in need. As performers this was a strong message to send to the crowd and modelled behaviour we have a social responsibility to copy.There are many examples of players forgetting their social responsibility. When Eric Cantona kicked a member of the crowd, when Louis Suarez racially abused another player, when Mike Tyson bit of part of an opponent’s ear etc. The last time YOU shouted at the referee. This is not how we would want to portray ourselves to other impressionable people. It is our social responsibility to act appropriately!
Role Models
Definition
These are people who serve as a good example and whose performance, attitude, fitness, behaviour and skills we would want to emulate. E.g. Sir Chris Hoy’s dedication and commitment to training.

Impact on Performance
Role models can encourage good sportsmanship and honesty (golfers owning up to things they do wrong) and can have a positive impact on those taking part in sport as they can also be used to discourage any negative behaviour.Role models have the ability to inspire others. Many idolise athletes such as David Beckham for his contribution to sport. Role models themselves can have a lot of pressure put onto them to be the perfect professional. Some professionals cannot handle this pressure or the pressure of losing. Lance Armstrong was stripped of all his Tour de France medals after he was found guilty of taking banned substances to improve his performance. This effected his reputation as an athlete.Model performers can be used for comparison with our own and others performances. This can be used to identify strengths and weaknesses in the performance in any of the 4 factors.

Citizenship
Definition
Citizenship is playing in the manner of fair play, respecting yourself and your opponents and could also be giving back to the sport by volunteering and setting a good example.

Impact on Performance
Citizenship in sport and activities occurs both on and off the field of play.Displaying good citizenship will result in games and events being played in a fair and competitive manner and respect being gained by your peers.Negative citizenship can result in negative feeling being portrayed and a loss of focus on what is needed to perform well. It cold also lead to a loss of temper which could end up with a player being asked to leave the field in Rugby or being deducted points in Gymnastics.

Extrinsic Motivation
Definition
Being driven by trophies, money, prizes or peer pressure.

Impact on Performance
Being driven by the cash prize on offer for a specific placed finish in a tournament. This can motivate you positively as winning a physical prize such as a trophy or medal is the reward many performers desire. It can also be negative as peer pressure may cause you to perform in a way you do not want to personally but do so for the approval of others.

Intrinsic Motivation
Definition
Personal desire and will to succeed, to improve and to perform at a higher standard.

Impact on Performance
It is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual for example, trying to performing for your own self-esteem. This is a positive influence as it is entirely internal motivation, it is competing against yourself. As a negative, it may not be enough to motivate some performers. They may need extrinsic motivation to ensure high levels of motivation.